What are Binary Options?
In finance, a binary option is a type of option where the payoff is either some fixed amount of some asset or nothing at all. The two main types of binary options are the cash-or-nothing binary option and the asset-or-nothing binary option.
The cash-or-nothing binary option pays some fixed amount of cash if the option expires in-the-money while the asset-or-nothing pays the value of the underlying security.
Thus, the options are binary in nature because there are only two possible outcomes. They are also called all-or-nothing options, digital options(more common in forex/interest rate markets), and Fixed Return Options (FROs) (on the American Stock Exchange). Binary options are usually European-style options.
In the popular Black-Scholes model, the value of a digital option can be expressed in terms of the cumulative normal distribution function.
Binary options contracts have long been available Over-the-counter (OTC), i.e. sold directly by the issuer to the buyer. They were generally considered “exotic” instruments and there was no liquid market for trading these instruments between their issuance and expiration. They were often seen embedded in more complex option contracts.Non exchange-traded binary options
Since mid-2008 binary options web-sites called binary option trading platforms have been offering a simplified version of exchange-traded binary options. It is estimated that around 90 such platforms (including white label products) have been in operation as of January 2012, offering options on some 125 underlying assets.
Exchange-traded binary options
In 2007, the Options Clearing Corporation proposed a rule change to allow binary options, and the Securities and Exchange Commissionapproved listing cash-or-nothing binary options in 2008. In May 2008, the American Stock Exchange (Amex) launched exchange-traded European cash-or-nothing binary options, and the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) followed in June 2008. The standardization of binary options allows them to be exchange-traded with continuous quotations.
Amex offers binary options on some ETFs and a few highly liquid equities such as Citigroup and Google. Amex calls binary options “Fixed Return Options”; calls are named “Finish High” and puts are named “Finish Low”. To reduce the threat of market manipulation of single stocks, Amex FROs use a “settlement index” defined as a volume-weighted average of trades on the expiration day. The American Stock Exchange and Donato A. Montanaro submitted a patent application for exchange-listed binary options using a volume-weighted settlement index in 2005.
CBOE offers binary options on the S&P 500 (SPX) and the CBOE Volatility Index (VIX). The tickers for these are BSZ and BVZ,respectively. CBOE only offers calls, as binary put options are trivial to create synthetically from binary call options. BSZ strikes are at 5-point intervals and BVZ strikes are at 1-point intervals. The actual underlying to BSZ and BVZ are based on the opening prices of index basket members.
Both Amex and CBOE listed options have values between $0 and $1, with a multiplier of 100, and tick size of $0.01, and are cash settled.
In 2009 Nadex, the North American Derivatives Exchange, launched and now offers a suite of binary options vehicles. Nadex binary options are available on a range Stock Index Futures, Spot Forex, Commodity Futures, and Economic Events.
Binary option trading is now an international industry. It is most widely recognized in the United States, but is increasing gaining popularity in the Middle East, Western Europe, Australia and Asia.
Example of a binary options trade
A trader who thinks that the EUR/USD strike price will close at or above 1.2500 at 3:00 p.m. can buy a call option on that outcome. A trader who thinks that the EUR/USD strike price will close at or below 1.2500 at 3:00 p.m. can buy a put option or sell the contract.
At 2:00 p.m. the EUR/USD spot price is 1.2490. the trader believes this will increase, so he buys 10 call options for EUR/USD at or above 1.2500 at 3:00 p.m. at a cost of $40 each.
The risk involved in this trade is known. The trader’s gross profit/loss follows the ‘all or nothing’ principle. He can lose all the money he invested, which in this case is $40 x 10 = $400, or make a gross profit of $100 x 10 = $1000. If the EUR/USD strike price will close at or above 1.2500 at 3:00 p.m. the trader’s net profit will be the payoff at expiry minus the cost of the option: $1000 – $400 = $600.
The trader can also choose to liquidate (buy or sell to close) his position prior to expiration, at which point the option value is not guaranteed to be $100. The larger the gap between the spot price and the strike price, the value of the option decreases, as the option is less likely to expire in the money.
In this example, at 3:00 p.m. the spot has risen to 1.2505. The option has expired in the money and the gross payoff is $1000. The trader’s net profit is $600.